THE IONIZING RADIATION effect for various PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS
1
HIGH STRENGTH POLYMERS PRODUCTION
Ionizing irradiation of polymers causes changes in the chemical structure, which lead to changes in the mechanical and physical properties of irradiated high-molecular compounds.

Polymer crosslinking with ionizing radiation is called radiation crosslinking.

When polymers are irradiated, hydrogen is released along with a simultaneous process of carbon bonds joining. As a result of the hydrogen atom abstraction from methylene group, double bonds and cross-bridging bonds are formed.
2
HEAT SHRINK MATERIALS PRODUCTION
The use of heat shrinkage is based on the shape memory effect. It is achieved by radiation exposure. For instance, if the polymer is placed in a powerful beam of electrons there is a connection of neighboring macromolecules with each other at the molecular level.

After this process the polymer becomes more elastic, and the product, when heated, acquires its original shape and initial dimensions.

3
PLASTIC WASTE RECYCLING
Adhesion properties of plastic surface change when exposed to electron beams. After irradiation
treatment modified polymers can easily bond with ingredients of concrete and asphalt mixes.
4
STERILIZATION OF MEDICAL DEVICES, FOOD PACKAGING, COSMETICS, ETC.
Electron accelerators use high energy of electrons and X-Rays as a method of sterilization. Electron accelerator generates and accelerates electrons that pass through materials and products, inducing breaks in the DNA of pathogens, and thus sterilizing the materials.

5
FOOD IRRADIATION
Food irradiation has a number of results, such as sprouting inhibition, slower ripening, it stops activity of insects, their larvae and all types of pathogens. This ensures food safety and increases its shelf life. Even low doses (less than 1 kGy) lead to a drastic reduction in the number of bacteria. It reduces the number of pathogenic microorganisms, such as rhizoctonia, phoma, and wide spread phytopathogens affecting agricultural produce and causing the following diseases: mycosis, phomosis, moulds, phytophthora, bacteriosis, etc. Ionizing radiation treatment removes parasites and salmonella.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the following terminology accepted for food irradiation:

1. Radisidation (4-6 kGy), - radiation treatment for the purpose of selective elimination of a particular microorganism (for example, salmonella, trichinella, etc.).

2. Radurization (6-10 kGy) is the radiation treatment of food products in order to increase shelf life, where the dose delivered leads to elimination of pathogens.

3. Radapertization (10-50 kGy). Indicated for industrial sterilization of food products that lead to full & complete elimination of pathogens and exclude repeat contamination.

6
ELECTRON BEAM FLUE GAS TREATMENT
Electron beams are highly effective in removal of most oxides like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The electron beam irradiation is a dry scrubbing technology which uses only electrical power. As a result of treatment the by-product is formed which may be further used in different industries.

The treatment by electron accelerator is based on irradiation of flue gas by electron beams. As a result of radiation and chemical reaction, reactive components such as О-; ОН-; H-2. are formed.

They react with the SO2 and NOx and form higher oxides: NO3 and SO3, that form nitric and sulphuric acid vapor. When reacting with ammonia, solid ammonium nitrate and sulfate are separated from the gas flow.

7
SAND IRRADIATION
Surface adhesion of desert sand particles to make the sand suitable for construction purposes.
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